One of the reasons that IncOders perform well at low temperatures is because of their neat internal thermal design. Our monolithic (no internal cavities) design uses thermally conductive epoxy to fill all the spaces in the stator. The main reason for this potted design is environmental protection of the electronics. Another advantage is that heat energy generated by our onboard power receiving circuitry can spread to other onboard electronics on the same printed circuit. Units supplied with 12 or 24V produce sufficient heat for low temperature operation, whereas units supplied with 5V are not recommended for low temperature operation.